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following pictures and quotes were taken from many of the books that I have come
across in researching the Native Americans and their dogs. Hopefully you
will find them as enjoyable and/or informative as I have. I have also
found the genetic relationship between Wolves and Dogs
interesting, especially since I have owned Wolves and Wolf-dogs.
The Sheep Eater Indians of
There is still a pervasive notion that Indians did not inhabit the
area. Drawing on the results of ongoing archaeological excavations and
extensive ethnographic work among descendant native peoples, Mountain Spirit
discusses the many groups that have in fact visited or lived in the area in
prehistoric and historic times. In particular, the Shoshone group known as
Tukudika, or Sheep Eaters, maintained a rich and abundant way of life closely
related to their primary source of protein, the mountain sheep of the
These robust people were talented artisans, making well-constructed shelters,
powerful horn bows, and expertly tailored clothing that was highly sought by
their trading partners. They moved in small, kin-based bands, accompanied by
large dogs that were indispensable hunting and trekking companions. Moving
seasonally through portions of the Beartooth, Absaroka, and
ranges, the Sheep Eaters made skillful use of their environment.
Written for general readers, Mountain Spirit includes photographs, lithographs,
and a number of color drawings and sketches of Sheep Eater life ways by Davíd
Joaquin. It presents a vivid picture of the vanished way of life of a people
whose accomplishments have been largely ignored in histories of Native peoples.
LAWRENCE LOENDORF is an archaeologist at
. He is the coauthor of Ancient Visions: Petroglyphs and Pictographs of the
and Bighorn Country:
(University of Utah Press 2001), and Restoring a Presence: American Indians and
NANCY MEDARIS STONE is a writer and editor with a background in archaeology. She
April 2006 256 pp., 6 x 9 4 maps, 40 photos, 8 color illustrations Cloth:
$50.00s ISBN-10: 0-87480-868-5 ISBN-13: 978-0-87480-868-1 Paper $19.95 ISBN-10:
0-87480-867-7 ISBN-13: 978-0-87480-867-4 Native American
Some of Majestic View's NAIDs were used as models for
the dogs in the illustrations for this book. Here is a guide to help you:
Fig.5-2 upper far left dog
standing: Cheyanne daughter of Satum and Hakata We dog lying in front of
Cheyanne, Yada's Amen, daughter of Yada and Fantastic Fred 2 pups: Hakata
We Paahuma offspring
Figs. 9-1, 9-2, 9-3, Hakata We
/ Paahuma offsprings all are the illustrator, David Joaquin's, Father's Hakata
We / Paahuma offspring, Naasha.
Fig. 12-2, Fig. 12-3 All Hakata We/
Plate 1 Naasha: Hakata We / Paahuma
Plate 2& Plate 3 All dogs are
Naasha, Hakata We / Paahuma female
Plate 4 consists of 2 pages:
a)Left side page, Upper left, dog standing with back pack, Kichuwa, son of
Keyonee and Hiapsi Auoule
b) dog sitting with head turned to
right : Sala Toloko, son of Whitney and Satum
c) pup lying behind woman with
child, Sunjka Wakan as a pup, daughter of Hakata We and Paahuma
d) other pup below lying down:
Naasha, as a pup, daughter of Hakata We and Paahuma
Right side or second page
a) pup behind Sala Toloko, lying down: Yada as a pup, daughter of Hakata We and
b) far right side of page with head
only pictured: Hakata We daughter of Wakan Hota and Nitchka
c) dog lying below Hakata We,
complete with black spot on tongue: Paahuma son of Keyonee and Haiti Kaita
d) dog standing lower right side
behind a male Tukudika Indian boy: Saranac Sam Son of Fred: You
guessed it, Fantastic Fred the sire, Otongo the dam, daughter of Keyonee and
I live in
but have spent most of my life in
I am interested in your dogs. Fantastic Fred is very reminiscent of the
Montegnais dogs used in
to haul wood etc. My dog, now dead 21 years had the web paws, long coat etc.
Was a strong swimmer etc.”
breed of dogs used for sled-driving by the Montegnais of Lake St. John and from
there to the St. Lawrence and Eastward generally as far as Seven Islands, is a
mongrel shaggy beast, prevailingly dark brown, of a rusty, worn hue, or black,
with a slight admixture of white."
of the Labrador Indians"
by Frank G. Speck (1925)
Creek Mary" typifies the nomadic life of the Athabaskans. Women
Assumed most of the burden of transportating belongings. Many of the
Athabaskan trading trails of southcentral Alaska became today's modern
Native People of Alaska" Traditional Living in a Northern Land
Steve J. Langdon
particularly commented on the communal buffalo hunts and how women went out with
their skinning knives, butchered and skinned the great animals and returned to
camp with their meat lashed to poles that were dragged by dogs. The dogs
and their burdens were especially interesting to Verendrye that animals so near
wolves in appearance could be tamed, trained and controlled was a small miracle
to him. Dog breeding was often the task of women who managed the dog
Epic" The Story of the American Indian
by Marriot and Carol K. Rachlin
Artist Karl Bodmer c. 1833
hunters used dogs for hunting and to pull a travois."
Pawnee Indians had spotted or broken pattern dogs that lived in the earth
Old West Indians"
A Time/Life Author
dogs helped in the hunting of seals and polar bears."
if the powerful underwater spirit, Salna, was appeased were seals available to
with the Esquimaux"
Charles Francis Hall
De Champlain 1616 describes the dogs of the Indians as very similar to that of a
wolf and a very large dog.
of North American Indians"
By Frederick E. Hoxie
Early Neutral Tribesman
The Neutral Indians have dogs that follow them, and
these dogs do not yelp, nevertheless they know well how to discover the
shelter the beast that they hunt is in, which when found they pursue it
relentlessly and courageously and never abandon it until they have thrown
it down and mortally wounded it. The hunters open its stomach, give
the entrails to the dogs, feast and then carry the rest.
By William J. Kubiak
Menominee Indian with his dog.
tribes of the Great Plains lived a nomadic existence following their food
Southwestern Indians trapped coyote for food."
on the Move"
By Robert Hofsinde (Gray Wolf)
Indians kept dogs which roamed around the Longhouses. Some were trained to
help with hunting and obey commands."
many as half a dozen of these slim wolf-like animals lived with the family in
the wigwam. Sometimes the dogs had their own sleeping place."
were sometimes trained to jump in the water to retrieve the game."
Wigwam and the Longhouse"
By Charlotte and David Yue
from Lewis and Clark's Journal commenting about their expedition team...
they ate dog meat they were more healthy, strong and fleshy than they had been
before the buffalo had run out."
taste of Coyote meat was akin to the men desiring a taste for paddling up
taste of dog meat from the Indians was about as good s the tongue of buffalo or
the tail of the beaver."
men ate 300 lbs. of meat a day, consisting of deer, antelope, mule deer, and
wild fowl. The men were not satisfied and still hungry. Buffalo,
beaver, bear, and dog were the most satisfying and filling to the men."
the night wolves or the dogs of the Indians came into camp and ate most of our dried
meat." (Lewis and Clark could not tell the dogs of the Indians from the
Essential Lewis and Clark"
Editor Landon Y. Jones
and Clark Voyage of Discovery"
By Stephen E. Ambrose
family, the Shoshone Indians, had dogs. Some were broken patterned dogs.
Picture Book of Sacagawea"
By David A. Adler Illustrated by Dan Brown Adler a Native American
the Spanish came Indians had no horses. Dogs hunted and pulled
book also contains numerous drawings and paintings of Indian Dogs.
of the Plains"
by Eugene Rachlis
"There were no
herding dogs until after the Spaniards brought sheep to the South Western
"Dogs were used
as pack animals and for hunting."
the Plains Indians Lived"
By George S. Fichter
"We followed the huge herds of buffalo packing our tipis on pony
drags and our other belongings on dogs."
"The Ledger Book
of Thomas Blue Eagle"
By Jewel H. Grutman and Gay Mathlaei
Water color c. 1823 - Chippewa Family traveling to a
fresh food supply.
By Alice Osinski
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"If you talk to the animals
they will talk with you and you will know each other. If you do not talk
to them, you will not know them, and what you do not know you will fear.
What one fears, one destroys"
~Chief Dan George
REFERENCES TO WOLF/DOG GENETIC HISTORY
N.A. Iljin, 1941
"The Phylogeny of
W.D. Matthew, 1930
"The first dog domesticated by man was a wolf.... The remains found
in the Beaverhead Mountains of Idaho and those found in Europe, Asia and
pre-Columbian America all belong to the same epoch. The friendship between man
and dog is one of the oldest and most lasting in history."
Simon & Schuster's
"Guide to Dogs"
"Herre and his colleagues at the institute had come to the firm
conclusion on the basis of a large number of skull measurements and examinations
of the size and structure of the brain, blood factors, and numbers of
chromosomes that all dogs, whether Pekingese, bulldogs or Alsatians, were
descended solely from the wolf and not, as has often been assumed, from the wolf
and the jackal." "The domesticated wolf is the dog".
"The Wolf, a
Species in Danger"
Dr. Erik Zimen
"Somewhere in early history a young wolf was brought into the family
circle of man and through the years became the source of the domestic dog and
our most successful and useful experiment in domestication".
From foreword written by Ian McTaggart Cowan, Dean of Graduate Studies and
Professor of Zoology, University of British Columbia
"The Wolf, Ecology
and Behavior of an Endangered Species"
Dr. L. David Mech, USFWS
"Although the subject continues to be controversial, most authorities
now agree that all dogs, from Chihuahuas to Dobermans are descended from wolves
which were tamed in the Near East ten or twelve thousand years ago."
"But man also made use of the wolf. The dogs owned by the American
Indians must have descended from wolf stock."
Rutherford G. Montgomery
"Canis species was parent to Canis lupus, the wolf; and the wolf was
probably parent to the domestic dog, Canis familiaris, the first large creature
who would live with men. Today the wolf's closest relatives are the
domestic dog, the dingo, the coyote and the jackal."
"Of Wolves and
Barry Holstun Lopez
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"The wolf is in fact a wild dog, a member of the scientific family
Canidae, which includes domestic dogs as well as other dog-like wild animals
such as foxes and jackals. Scientists believe that wolves are the direct
ancestors of today's domestic dogs. They think that early humans domesticated
wild wolves to make them useful companions and work animals. Since that time,
selective breeding has produced the many varieties of domestic dogs, some of
which are very un-wolf like in appearance and habit".
Sylvia Johnson & Alice Aamodt
"Canis familiaris was probably domesticated from the wolf 10-12,000
years ago. It found it's way into North America as far south as Idaho. Given
thousands of years to selectively breed mutants that cropped up in their dog
colonies, humans have manipulated an almost incredible diversity in this
species. And there exist today more than 800 true breeding types
"Looking at the
No author listed, Teton Science School
"Although wolves and dogs are both members of the Canid family,
wolves rarely bark."
"The Kingdom of
"Few other species have had such a diversity of relationships with
man as has the wolf. Evidently early humans tamed wolves and domesticated them,
eventually selectively breeding them and finally developing the domestic dog (Canis
familiaris) from them. "To date no differences in karyotypes have been
found between the wolf and the domestic dog or the coyote (Hungerford &
Snyder, 1966), or the red wolf (Nowak, 1970). According to Hsu and Benirschke
(1967), both dog and coyote have 39 pairs of chromosomes, with the autosomes
described as "acrocentrics or teleocentrics" and the sex chromosomes
as "submetacentric" for the X and 'minute' for the Y in the coyote and
"minute metacentric" for the Y in the dog. Iljin (1941) crossed a wolf
with a black mongrel sheep dog and then made various types of crosses for four
generations, totaling 101 individuals, all of which were fertile."
John F. Eisenberg, The University of Chicago Press
"A wild wolf is genetically little more distant from the domesticated
dog than a wild mustang is to a quarter horse. (That wolf and dog can be
hybridized, while a fox and dog cannot, points to the genetic and ancestral
affinities of wolf and dog.)...."In actuality, a poodle, like any purebred
dog, already has innumerable wolf genes since they share a close common
Dr. Michael W. Fox, D.V.M., Ph.D., D.Sc., Vice President, Bioethics, Humane
Society of the United States
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"...Breeds of dogs can not be distinguished from each other by any
known anatomical attribute or even biochemical genetic test, including DNA
fingerprinting. Since a given breed of dog can not be defined by any scientific
means currently known, our contention is that it is not possible to write any
ordinance or law that would single them out for special treatment since they
cannot be so defined in a legal sense. "Recently I attended a canine
genetics workshop at Texas A & M University in which it was further
emphasized that there is no biochemical genetic test that can even distinguish
wolves from domestic dogs. "...I would taxonomically identify all wolves,
wolf hybrids and domestic dogs as the species Canis lupus. Technically,
the domestic dog and wolf hybrids should be designated as the
Letter, 30, Jan. 1990
I. Lehr Brisbin, Jr., Research Professor, Savannah
River Ecology Laboratory, The University of Georgia
"There is not presently a valid test that will guarantee analysis of
whether a particular canine carries wolf blood. Certain DNA studies have been
conducted by a New York laboratory under contract by the Wyoming Game and Fish
Department, but a much larger population study of wolf and dog breeds would have
to be done before conclusive results can be obtained."
From letter to
Gov. Cecil D. Andrus, March 19, 1992
Jerry M. Conley, Director, Idaho Fish and Game Dept.
"Canis familiaris is the scientific name for the domesticated dog. He
belongs to the same genus as the wolf, Canis lupus. Scientists, after many years
of controversy, now agree that wolves were domesticated about 12,000 years ago
by various Indian tribes throughout the world."
"Leader of The
Pack, Shaping Dog Instincts Through Pack Training" Nathan B. Childs,
Compiled by Jan Diaz, WolfGang Kennel, 3143 Tomer Rd., Moscow, ID
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